Individual Aspects


Sensation & Perception

1- Gibson’s theory of direct perception
2- Gregory’s constructivist theory
3- Marr’s model of perception
4- Neisser’s analysis by synthesis model


1- Structural constraint models of attention by Broadbent (1958), Treisman (1964), and Deutsch and Deutsch (1963).
2- Resource allocation by Kahneman (1973)
3- Structural and processing constraints in Pashler’s (1998) framework for thinking
4- Load theory (Lavie, 2000)


1- Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Multi-Store Model
2- Craik & Lockhart’s Levels of Processing
3- Baddeley & Hitch’s Working Memory Model
4- Miller’s Magic Number
5- Peterson and Peterson’s Memory Decay
6- Brown & Kulik’s Flashbulb Memories


1- Skinner (1938, 1953)’s stimulus- response-stimulus
2- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)’s multistage theory of memory
3- Piaget (1952, 1969, 1971); Baldwin (1902, 1906-1911); Bruner (1974)’s Developmental Constructivist
4- Vygotsky (1962, 1978)’s social constructivist


Language Acquisition
1- Skinner’s Verbal Behavior Theory
2- Noam Chomsky’s Nativist theory
3- Piaget’s Cognitive Development theory
4- Lev Vygotsky’s social interaction theory
5- Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, Roche, (2001)’s relatinal frame theory
6- MacWhinney’s emergentist competition model
7- Tomasello’s usage base theory
8- Prince and Smolensky (1993)’s Optimality theory
9- Patricia Kuhl’s Native Language Magnet model
Language Comprehension
1- Frazier (1987)’s Garden path model
2- Pollard, Carl’s Constraint based model
3- Fernanda Ferreira, Paul E. Engelhardt, Manon W. Jones (2009)’s Good Enough model


1- Humphrey(2000, 2006)’s Volitional theory
2- Chart(2000)’s Simulation based theory
3- Werbos(1994)’s Optimization based theory
4- Hempel(1962,1965)’s deductive-nomological theory
5- Piaget(1978)’s mental co-ordination theory
Decision Making, Judgement, Planning
1- Information Processing approach
1.1- Beach and Mitchell(1978) & Payne (1976)’s Adaptive Decision-Maker Framework
1.2- Bettman et al. (1998)’s Choice Goals Framework
1.3- Hogarth (2001) Kahnemann and Frederick (2002) Sloman (1996)’s dual process views of thinking
2- Risk based approach
2.1- Kahnemann and Tversky(1979)’s Prospect theory
Creativity, Imagination, Forecasting
1- Wallas’s Incubation phase
2- Guilford’s model of creativity
3- Since Rhodes(1961)’s 4P Model
4- Finke et al. (1992)’s Geneplore model
5- Helie and Sun’s The Explicit Implicit Interaction (EII) theory
6- Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner’s Conceptual blending
7- Liane Gabora’s Honing theory
1- O’Brien’s mental logic theory
2- Cosmides, L. et al. (2005)’s inference based reasoning
3- Johnson-Laird, P.N. and Byrne, R.M.J. (2002)’s mental models
4- Oaksford, M. and Chater, N. (2007)’s Bayesian Rationality
Problem Solving
1- Wolfgang Köhle’s Insight theory
2- Ohlsson (1992)’s Representational Change Theory
3- MacGregor et al (2001)’s Progress Monitoring Theory
4- Transfer of Training theory
5- Template theory by Charnes et al. (2001)
6- Anderson’s ACT Theory
Emotional Thinking, Attribution
1- Fritz Heider’s Common sense psychology
2- Edward E. Jones and Keith Davis’ correspondent inference theory
3- Harold Kelley’s covariation model
4- Bernard Weiner’s three dimensional model


1- Faculty theory
2- One factor/UNI factor theory
3- Spearman’s two-factor theory
4- Thorndike’s multifactor theory
5- Thurstone’s theory : Primary mental abilities/Group factor theory
6- Guilford’s model of structure of intellect
7- Vernon’s hierarchical theory
8- Cattell’s fluid and crystallized theory
9- Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligence
10- Sternberg’s triarchic theory
11- Anderson’s theory of cognitive development
12- Eysenck’s structural theory
13- Ceci’s Biological Theory

Cognitive Biases


1- James-Lange Theory
2- Cannon-Bard Theory
3- Schachter-Singer 2 Factor Theory
4- Lazarus’s Cognitive-mediational Theory

Motivation, Volition

1- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
2- Alderfer’s ERG theory
3- McClelland’s Theory of Needs
4- Herzberg’s two-factor theory
5- Skinner’s Reinforcement theory
6- Vroom’s Expectancy theory
7- Adam’s Equity theory
8- Locke’s Goal setting theory



1- Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
2- Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB)
3- Loewenstein’s Risk as Feelings model
4- Petty and Cacioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model
5- Dahlgren and Whitehead’s Main Determinants of Health model
6- Vlek et al’s Needs Opportunities Abilities (NOA) Model

Behavior Change

1- Lewin’s Change Theory
2- Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations theory
3- Prochaska and Di Clemente’s Transtheoretical (‘Stages of Change’) Model
4- Fisher and Fisher’s IMB (Information, Motivation, Behavioural Skills) model
5- Fishbein and Ajzen’s Theory of Reasoned Action


1- Bem’s self-perception theory
2- Triandis’s theory of interpersonal behaviour
3- Verplanken’s strong habits theory


1- Allport’s trait levels
2- Raymond Cattell’s 16PF Questionnaire
3- J. P. Guilford’s Structure of Intellect
4- Henry Murray’s System of Needs
5- Timothy Leary’s Interpersonal circumplex
6- Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
7- Gray’s Biopsychological theory of personality
8- Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
9- Big Five personality traits


1- Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
2- Adler, Horney, Forman and Sullivan’s Socio-Psychological theory
3- Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory & Raymond Cattell’s Trait Theory
4- Carl Rogers’s Self theory

Personality Disorders

Social Aspects

Intrapersonal phenomena


Attitude Formation
1- Mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968)
2- Associative learning of attitudes (Staats and Staats, 1958)
3- Self-perception theory (Bem, 1965)
4- Functional approach (Katz, 1960; Smith, 1956)


1- Festinger’s Cognitive dissonance
2- Petty and Cacioppo’s elaboration likelihood model
3- McGuire’s Inoculation theory
4- Green and Brock’s Narrative transportation theory
5- Sherif et al’s theory of Social judgment
6- Chaiken’s heuristic-systematic model of information processing

Social cognition

1- Fiske and Taylor’s cognitive misers
2- Heider’s Native Scientists
3- Kruglanski’s motivated tacticians
4- Brewer’s dual process theory
5- Fiske and Neuberg’s continuum model


1- Rogers’ Self concept
2- Cooley’s looking glass self theory
3- Carver and Scheier’s self regulation theory
4- Higgin’s Self discrepancy theory
5- Festinger’s social comparison theory
6- Tesser’s self evaluation maintenance model
7- Tajfel and Turner’s social identity theory
8- Turner’s self categorization theory

Interpersonal phenomena

Social influence

1- Sherif’s social norm development
2- Asch’s Conformity
3- Moscovici’s Minority influence
4- Milgram’s Obedience
5- Kelman’s social influence theory
6- Latané’s social impact theory
7- Cialdini’s weapons of influence
8- Reicher’s Social Identity model for Deindividuation Effects

Group dynamics

1- Tuckman’s Group development stages
2- Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium
3- Levine and Campbell’s Realistic group conflict theory
4- Tajfel’s Minimal group paradigm
5- Doise’s Category differentiation model
6- Cadinu and Rothbart’s Self anchoring theory
7- Greenberg’s Terror management theory
8- Gaertner and Dovidio’s Common ingroup identity model
9- Lewin’s Group dynamics
10- Belbin’s Team Role Inventory

Interpersonal attraction

Cognitive Consistency Theories
1- Heider’s Balance Theory
2- Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Reinforcement Theories
1- Thibaut and Kelly’s Theory of Social Interdependence
2- Aronson’s Gain and Loss Theory
3- Homan’s Social Exchange Theory
4- Adam’s Equity Theory
5- Lott and Lott’s Role of Rewards Theory