Definition: the different kinds or ways of being.
Substance Quantity Quality Relation Place Date Posture State Action Passion
Quantity(Unity/Plurality/Totality) Quality(Reality/Negation/Limitation) Relation(Inherence and Subsistenc/Causality and Dependence/Community) Modality(Possibility/Existence/Necessity)
Definition: repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things.
Universals only exist only where they are instantiated; they exist only in things.
Universals exist objectively and outside of human minds.
Universals have no connection with external things because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and functions.
Definition: the relation each thing bears only to itself.
There are no two individuals indiscernible from one another.
…Identity is relative…it makes no sense to judge whether x and y are ‘the same’, or whether x remains ‘the same’, unless we add or understand some general term—“the same F”.
Modality (de re)¶
Definition: pertaining to possibility and necessity of things and properties.
modality de re cannot be understood at all as it cannot be understood in terms of analyticity.
modality de re can be understood in the context of various possible worlds.
modality de re can be understood in terms of many non-actual worlds.
Space & Time¶
absolute space and time are a backdrop or stage setting within which physical phenomena occur.
length and simultaneity are relative to the observer’s reference frame.
mass and energy curve both space and time into a four-dimensional Lorentzian manifold.
Mind & Matter¶
the view that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable.
the view that all existing things return to a source that is distinct from them.
the view that “everything is physical”, that there is “nothing over and above” the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
the view that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are neither physical nor mental.
Causation, Freedom and Determinism¶
the view that all events are determined completely by previously existing causes.
the view that events are not caused.
the view that determinism and free will are mutually compatible.
the view that determinism and free will are not compatible.
the view that agents have free will and this is not compatible with determinism.
the view that what serves generally accepted practical benefits would qualify as cognitive success.
the view that what serves essential benefits would qualify as cognitive success.
the view that what humans aim to achieve as part of life would qualify as cognitive success.
Nature of Knowledge¶
attitude toward proposition
proposition being in accord with fact or reality
reason for holding a certain belief
Source of Belief¶
processing of sensory information
examination of own mind
recovery of previously stored data or information
human thought process
information conveyed by others
Nature of Justification¶
justified in believing if not obliged to refrain from believing
justified in believing if it makes it sufficiently likely that belief is true
Views on Knowledge¶
the view that a belief is only justified is there is an evidence.
the view that a belief is only justified if it is the result of a reliable process.
the view that a belief is only justified if one has internal access to its justification or the justification is established by one’s mental states.
the view that internal justification is not required.
Structure of Knowledge¶
the view that justification rests on a set of priviledged beliefs serving as a foundation
the view that justification is a function of relationship between various beliefs none of which are priviledged to others
Extent of Cognetive Success¶
the view that no certain belief can be achieved in some particular domain
the view that no certain belief can be achieved
Ethics & Value Theory¶
Ethics & Value Theory
Good Simpliciter/ Good For
good for refers to goodness for a certain agent in a certain condition while good simpliciter refers to unconditional goodness
Instrinsic vs Instrumental
an instrumental value is a value worth having as a means while an intrinsic value is a value worth having for itself.
two values are not commensurable when they cannot be compared or traded off against each other.
the view that there are objective moral properties which are reducible.
the view that there are objective but irreducible moral properties.
the view that moral properties are dependent on the attitudes or conventions of people.
the view that all moral properties are false.
the view that moral statements serve merely to express emotions.
the view that moral statements are not facts but behave liguistically like facts.
the view that moral statements function like universalized imperative sentences.
the view that some system of ethics applies universally.
the view that there is no single objective standard to assess the truth of moral propositions.
the view that nothing has instrinsic moral value.
the view that moral knowledge is gained primarily through observation and experience.
the view that moral knowledge is knowable by reason only.
the view that some moral knowledge is knowable non-inferentially.
the view that no one has any moral knowledge.
Eudaimonist Virtue Ethics¶
the form of virtue ethics in which virtues are defined in terms of their relationship to eudaimonia (generally translated as happiness or welfare)
Agent-Based Virtue Ethics¶
the form of virtue ethics in which virtues are defined in terms of motivations and traits of the agents.
the form of deontological ethics in which the focus is on the duties and actions of agents including constraints, obligations and options.
the form of deotological ethics in which
the view that actions should be promoted that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals
the view that actions should be promoted that maximize agent’s own total pleasure.
the view that actions should be promoted that maximize good for self.
the view that actions should be promoted that maximize the good for everyone except self.
the view that actions should be promoted based on a set of rules that are set based on their consequences.
the view that actions should be promoted based on minimizing bad consequences.